Components of WAN

CPE or Customer Premises Equipment: these are devices on the subscriber premises, owned or leased by the subscriber. The CPE is connected to the service provider’s central office with a copper or fiber cable, which is often referred to as local loop. DTE/DCE or Data circuit-Terminating Equipment or Data Communications Equipment: the DTE passes the data to the DCE, while the DCE provides an interface for the DTE into the communication link on the WAN cloud.

Difference Between Web 1.0, Web 2.0, & Web 3.0- with Examples

General Routing Issues
A routing protocol specifies the communication between routers, and exchange information on a network. The RIP or Routing Information Protocol was commonly used on internal networks by routers to adapt changes to the network connections and communicate information.
Routing Algorithms
Distance vector: this routing protocol requires that every router informs its neighbors of its routing table. It is also referred to as the bellman-ford algorithm.


Addressing and routing
Routing is simply the decision of moving one packets from one network to another, and the routes can be learned, by using a routing protocol.

Circuit Switched Leased Lines
This establishes a dedicated circuit between nodes and terminals, to allow communications among users.

Link state: this routing protocol requires the maintenance of a partial map of the network on each router. It is also referred to as Dijkstra’s algorithm.


IP Addresses
IP addresses are usually in a decimal format, as in This makes it easier for human understanding, as computers communicate in binary form which isn’t clear to humans.


You get 32-bit address from Octets (the four numbers that separate an IP address), which contains 8 bits for every position. An octet help creates classes of IP addresses to be assigned in a network.


Sub Netting


This allows multiple networks within a class A, B, or C address, and the address is used by the local area network (LAN).

Packet switching
This refers to the protocols where messages are broken into small packets before they are sent out and transmitted over the internet. Packet switching networks include:
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Packet Switched Data Network (PSDN)

Mobile and Broadband Services

This includes:
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): this can either be asymmetric or symmetric
High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL)
ISDN Digital Subscriber Line (IDSL)

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